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Durable Oncologic Outcomes after Radiofrequent Ablation for T1 Renal Cell Carcinoma in Poor Surgical Candidates
Sarah P Psutka, Francis J McGovern, Peter Mueller, W. Scott McDougal, Debra Gervais, Adam S Feldman
Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA

Introduction: Long-term oncologic outcomes for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are limited. Methods: Between 1998 and 2008, 311 biopsy-proven RCC were treated with RFA in 274 patients. Exclusion criteria included history of prior RCC or known metastatic RCC at time of RFA (n=92). 26 were lost to follow-up prior to their 6-month imaging study. We retrospectively reviewed the long-term oncologic outcomes for 193 patients. Mean follow-up was 4.6 yrs (range 1-12, SD 2.3). Results: Mean age was 71 years. Mean Charlson Score was 5.46. Tumor size averaged 3.1cm (SD 1.3cm) and 64 (33%) were endophytic. Tumor breakdown by stage was T1a: n=153 (79%), T1b: n=37 (19%), and T2: n=3 (2%). Initial treatment success rate was 89%. There were 6 local recurrences (3%) in 4 patients with T1b disease and 2 patients with T2 disease with an average time-to-recurrence of 2.9 years (SD 0.7). 95% of patients with T1a RCC were disease free at last follow-up, in comparison to 81% of those with T1b and 33% of those with T2 disease (p=0.008). At last follow-up 178 (92%) patients were disease-free. 16 (8.2%) developed metastatic disease and 4 patients (2%) died of RCC. Mean disease-free survival was 4.3 years (SD 2.4). Conclusions: In patients who are poor surgical candidates, RFA Results in durable local control and a low risk of disease recurrence in T1 RCC. Higher stage, however, correlates with a lower disease free survival and should be considered when evaluating treatment options.


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